Winston Churchill delivering a speech
9th and 10th Grade will be taking tests on Speak and Lord of the Flies, respectively. The test is worth 10 points and is to confirm that you have read the book, paid attention during class discussions, and can synthesize your thoughts and interpretations of events of the story.
12th Grade will be taking a similar Into the Wild exam on Wednesday.
12th Grade- Rhetorical Strategies- Today we will be discussing how we can use language to assert our points and be more convincing.
This is the PowerPoint slideshow on rhetorical strategies we took notes on today.
Skills for Being More Convincing in Your Writing and Speech
Rhetoric- the art of effective speaking. Using the following rhetorical strategies will make your points more convincing and help you to get people to do what you want!
Rhetorical Question: a question that is meant to prove a point or raise an issue, rather than be answered directly.
ex: A child is asking for a very expensive toy. His parent says “Do you think that money just grows on trees?”
Here are some great examples of rhetorical questions and when to use them.
Logos- The speaker attempts to appeal to the audience’s logical or reasoning side.
ex:”Ladies and gentlemen of the jury: we have not only the fingerprints, the lack of an alibi, a clear motive, and an expressed desire to commit the robbery… We also have video of the suspect breaking in. The case could not be more open and shut.”
Pathos- The speaker attempts to appeal to the audience’s emotional or sympathetic side
ex: “There’s no price that can be placed on peace of mind. Our advanced security systems will protect the well-being of your family so that you can sleep soundly at night.”
Ethos- The character of the speaker is used to appeal to the audience.
“As a doctor, I am qualified to tell you that this course of treatment will likely generate the best results.”
More great examples of these three rhetorical strategies in use.
Skills to Make Your Statements More Effective
Anaphora- the first word repeater. By repeating the first word(s) of a sentence, you drive your point home.
Example from Winston Churchill during World War II:
“We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.”
An anaphora makes the listeners/readers predict what you are about to say. It has a subconscious effect of creating harmony with them, because they know what to expect. Listeners/readers that feel harmonious with you are more likely to believe you and be convinced by you.
More examples here and here.
Epistrophe- the first word repeater. By repeating the first word(s) of a sentence, you drive your point home.
Example from Aragorn in The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, 2003):
“A day may come when the courage of men fails, but it is not this day. When we forsake our friends and break all bonds of fellowship, but it is not this day. An hour of woes and shattered shields, when the age of men comes crashing down! But it is not this day! This day we fight!”
An epistrophe can cause your listeners/readers to finish your sentence. Often when people are telling us something we already know, we can finish their sentences for them. By manufacturing this feeling through epistrophe, we can create that same sense of agreement, and make people more likely to agree with our statements.
More examples here and here.